According to marathon regulations, the organizer should set up one water station at every five kilometers. This results in one runner consuming 10 to 15 disposable cups throughout the race. Two to three million cups are disposed among the over 100 marathons held in Taiwan each year.
Indonesia has few landfills and little waste collection or recycling. Instead, large amounts of plastic are tossed directly onto the beaches and into the ocean. A lack of purified drinking water that forces Indonesian residents to drink bottled water, and they often toss the plastic bottles.